# Load | Maximum Demand | Demand Factor | Average Load | Diversity Factors | Plant capacity Factor | Utilization factor

Load:- It is defined as the electrical energy consumed by the device/circuit/system.. The term load is used in number of ways. \\\;\;1. It is used to indicate Electrical energy consumed by device/circuit. \\\;\;2. vIt is used to indicate the power rating of device/system.\\\;\;3. It is used to indicate current rating of the device/system.

Connected Load:- It is sum of the ratings of all loads connected to a system.\\Suppose a Power Station supplies power to 1000 consumers. Each consumer has 5 Number of 100W bulbs and Heater of 2KW.\\Total connected load of Each consumer = (5×100)+2000 =2500W=2.5KW \\Total connected load on the Power station = 2.5x 1000 = 2.5MW

Maximum Demand/Peak Load:- `It is the greatest of all demands which have occurred during specific period of time. Maximum Demand helps in determining the installed capacity of a generating station. The generating station must be capable of the meeting the maximum demand. Hence the cost of plant and equipment increase with the increase of maximum demand.

In the figure above shows load varation duration time period of 24 hours. The Maximum Demand during the time period is 15KW.

Demand Factor:- It is the ratio of maximum demand to the connected load. It is usually less than 1. \\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;Demand\;Factor = \frac{Max\;Demand}{Connected\;Load}

Load factor:- It is the ratio of Average Load over a given period of time to the maximum demand occuring in that period. \\\;\\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;Load\;Factor=\frac{Average\;Load}{Maximum\;Demand}=\frac{Energy\;consumed\;in\;given\;period\;of\;time}{Maximum\;demand\;in\;that\;period\;of\;time}\\Load plays a important role in cost of generation per unit. The higher the load factor, the lesser will be the cost of generation per unit for the same maximum demand.

Diversity Factor:- It is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on whole system.\\\;\\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;Diversity\;Factor=\frac{Sum\;of\;individua\;maximum\;demands}{Maximum\;demand\;of\;whole\;system}\\Greater the diversity factor, lesser is the cost of generation. Diversity factor is always greater than 1.\\Load Diversity = (Sum of Maximum Demands)-(Maximum Demand of whole system)

In the figure shown above, a Power stationhas three types of consumers Domestic consumers, commercial consumers and Industrial consumers. The individual maximum demands of these consumers are 12KW, 6KW and 25KW respectively. The maximum demand of whole system is 14KW. The Diversity factor will be \\\;\\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;Diversity factor= \frac{Sum\;of\;individua\;maximum\;demands}{Maximum\;demand\;of\;whole\;system}=\frac{12+6+25}{14}=\frac{43}{14}=3.07

Plant Capacity Factor:- It is the ratio of actual energy produced or supplied over a specified period of time to the maximum possible energy that could have produced during a given period of time.\\\;\\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;Plant\;Capacity\;factor=\frac{Actual\;energy\;produced\;in\;given\;time}{(Maximum\;plant\;rating)\times(Time)}\\\;\\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; Plant\;Capacity\;factor=\frac{Average\;demand}{plant\;capacity}\\The Power plant has always some reserve capacity to take into account future expansion, increase in load and maintenance.\\Reserve Capacity of Plant = Plant Capacity – Maximum Demand.

Utilization factor:- It is the ratio of maximum demand to the rated capacity of the system.\\\;\\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;Utilization\;Factor=\frac{Maximum\;demand}{Rated\;system\;capacity}

Plant Use Factor:- It is ratio of kWh generated to the product of plant capacity and the number of hours for which the plant was in operation\\\;\\\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;Plant\;Use\;factor=\frac{Acutal\;Energy\;Produceds}{Plant\;Capacity\;\times\;number\;of\;operational\;hours}

#### Author: AJAZ UL HAQ

AJAZ UL HAQ has above 8 years of Experience in Electrical Power Transmission, Distribution and Substation. Presently He is working with KEI Industries Limited as Engineer-EPC/EHV.