__Charge__

__Charge__

It is the basic property of matter carried by elementary particles that causes it to experience a force when placed in magnetic or electric field. There are two types of electric charge: positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. The Charge is neither created nor destroyed.The negative charge of each electron is equal to that of the positive charge of each proton. Some of the atoms in the surface layer of a glass rod get positively charged by rubbing it with a silk cloth by lossing electrons, leaving a net positive charge because of the unneutralized protons of their nuclei. A negatively charged object has an excess of electrons on its surface. similarly a positively charged object has excess of protons on its surface.It is denoted by “q” and its SI unit is coulomb “C”and is defined as the amount of electric charge that flows through a cross section of a conductor in an electric circuit during each second when the current has a value of one ampere.

Various properties of charge include the following:

- Additivity of Electric Charge
- Conservation of Electric Charge
- Quantization of Electric Charge

In any isolated system, Electric charge is conserved, which means the net electric charge of the system is constant. The algebraic sum of the fundamental charges in any isolated system remains the same.

Net charge in a system

q
= ne + np

Where e = charge of electron = -1.602 x 10^{-19} C

p =
charge of proton = 1.602 x ^{-19} C

n =
number of electron/protons

1
C = 6.242 x 10^{18 }e

__Electric current __

__Electric current__

it is
defined as the rate of change of charge through specified area.

Mathematically

dq = change in charge,

dt = change in time (seconds)

The SI Unit of current is ampere “ A”

__Voltage__

__Voltage__

it is defined as amount of potential energy between two points in a circuit. one point has more charge than another. This difference in charge between two points is called voltage. The SI unit of voltage is volt “ V”.

*amount*, voltage is represented by the water *pressure*, and current is represented by the water *flow*. So for this analogy, remember:

- Water = Charge
- Pressure = Voltage
- Flow = Current

Consider a water tank at a certain height above the ground. At the bottom of this tank there is a hose.

**Read Also**

02.Principle
and Construction of DC generator

03.Electric
Circuit | Terms Related to Electric Circuit | What is Electric Circuit

04.Electric
Charge | Electric Current | Voltage

05.Series
and Parallel Combination of Resistances

06.Resistors

09.Where
does the reactive power Go?

10.Why
Transformer is not Connected to DC

11.Capacitor

12.Series
and parallel Combination of Capacitors

14.Voltage
divider Rule and Current divider Rule

15. Lightning Arrester

16. Losses
in Transmission and distribution

17.Charging and
Discharging of Capacitor

19. Methods of
Electrical Earthing

20.Calculating the
Number of earthing rods/Pipes required

21.Inductor

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